The BJP Goes Too Far

Become a Patron! The BJP's Hindu Nationalism Interferes with India's International Relations The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) rose to power through an ideology of Hindu Nationalism. Hinduism is an Ancient religion with deep roots in India, however Hindu Nationalism is a more recent invention. It is a political ideology based on religious identity rather than... Continue Reading →

The Moderation of Liberalism?

Become a Patron! The sixth and final post on Francis Fukuyama’s recent book Liberalism and its Discontents. The Moderation of Liberalism Francis Fukuyama includes a puzzling line near the beginning of Liberalism and its Discontents. The title suggests an uncompromising defense of liberalism against its critics. However, Fykuyama writes, "The answer to these discontents is... Continue Reading →

The Discontent for Liberalism from the Right

Become a Patron! The fifth of six posts on Francis Fukuyama’s recent book Liberalism and its Discontents. The Discontent for Liberalism from the Right The fiercest attacks against liberalism have always come from conservative intellectuals. Indeed, Americans imagine conservatism as the antithesis of liberalism. But conservatism is not the same as illiberalism. Moreover, conservatism can... Continue Reading →

Leftist Discontent for Liberalism

Become a Patron! The fourth of six posts on Francis Fukuyama’s recent book Liberalism and its Discontents. Leftist Discontent for Liberalism The left has a long, but complicated relationship with liberalism. Liberalism began as a radical movement of reform. But it became conservative after it accomplished its original aims. Many liberals looked to consolidate their... Continue Reading →

Fukuyama and Economic Liberalism

The third of six posts on Francis Fukuyama’s recent book Liberalism and its Discontents. Economic Liberalism Liberalism is a loaded term. Americans think of an ideology associated with the left. Europeans think of a laissez-faire school of economics associated with Mises, Hayek, and Friedman. Meanwhile, academics imply a form of political liberalism when they refer... Continue Reading →

Why Does Liberalism Matter

Become a Patron! The second of six posts on Francis Fukuyama’s recent book Liberalism and its Discontents. Why Does Liberalism Matter Like so many other ideas in the political lexicon, liberalism is surprisingly difficult to define. Francis Fukuyama, however, does not shy away from the attempt. He writes, "Classical liberalism is a big tent that... Continue Reading →

Liberalism Under Attack

  The first of six posts on Francis Fukuyama's recent book Liberalism and its Discontents. Liberalism Under Attack Francis Fukuyama loves to take an idea and turn it upside down. He became widely known for proclaiming an end to history. Today's readers may look at this idea with disdain, but few of them recall how... Continue Reading →

Conservative Democracy

Conservatism Reimagined Let me be clear: Conservative democracy is not an illiberal democracy. Indeed, a conservative democracy is a liberal democracy. Let me explain. Democratization depends on liberals, but its consolidation depends on conservatives. A conservative democracy is likely an incomplete democracy, but at the same time it guarantees widespread support for democracy. Now, plenty... Continue Reading →

Does Liberalism Unfold Democracy or Constrain it?

Liberalism and Democracy have a long history. Most theorists now refer to liberal democracy as a more complete form of democracy, but the role of liberalism is rarely clarified. Is it a counterweight to democracy or its cornerstone? This is the eight part of the Democracy Paradox, a comprehensive theory of democracy. Liberalism and Democracy... Continue Reading →

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